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2018
03-04

nginx+keepalive实现高可用热备负载均衡

规划和准备

 

两台相同配置的web

用途

IP

MASTER

192.168.1.100

BACKUP

192.1681.101

安装

两台接入服务器分别安装NginXkeepalived:

准备依赖包:

yum -y install gcc pcre-devel zlib-devel openssl-devel

yum -y install popt-devel

下载

wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.2.4.tar.gz

wget http://www.keepalived.org/software/keepalived-1.2.7.tar.gz

 

安装NginX

安装keepalive


tar zxvf keepalived-1.2.7.tar.gz

cd keepalived-1.2.7

./configure

make

make install

 

cp /usr/local/etc/rc.d/init.d/keepalived /etc/rc.d/init.d/

cp /usr/local/etc/sysconfig/keepalived /etc/sysconfig/

mkdir /etc/keepalived

cp /usr/local/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf /etc/keepalived/

cp /usr/local/sbin/keepalived /usr/sbin/


加入启动服务

echo "/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx" >> /etc/rc.local

echo "/etc/init.d/keepalived start" >> /etc/rc.local


3 配置

 

3.1 配置NginX

两台接入服务器的NginX的配置完全一样,主要是配置/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.confhttp。其中多域名指向是通过虚拟主机(配置http下面的server)实现;同一域名的不同虚拟目录通过每个server下面的不同location实现;到后端的服务器在http下面配置upstream,然后在serverlocation中通过proxypass引用。要实现前面规划的接入方式,http的配置如下:


http {

    include       mime.types;

    default_type  application/octet-stream;

 

    sendfile        on;

 

    upstream dev.hysec.com {

        server 50.1.1.21:80;

    }

 

 

    upstream opslinux.com {

      ip_hash;

      server 192.168.1.102:80

      server 192.168.1.103:80

      server 192.168.1.104:80

    }

    server {

        listen       80;

        server_name  opslinux.com;

        location / {

            proxy_pass http://opslinux.com;

        }

}


验证方法:

首先用IP访问前表中各个应用服务器的url

再用域名和路径访问前表中各个应用系统的域名/虚拟路径

3.2 配置keepalived

按照上面的安装方法,keepalived的配置文件在/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf。主、从服务器的配置相关联但有所不同。如下:


Master:

 

! Configuration File for keepalived

 

global_defs {

  router_id NGINX_DEVEL

}

 

vrrp_instance VI_1 {

    state MASTER

    interface eth0

    virtual_router_id 51

    priority 101

    advert_int 1

    authentication {

        auth_type PASS

        auth_pass 1111

    }

    virtual_ipaddress {

       192.168.1.100

    }

}

 

Backup:

 

! Configuration File for keepalived

 

global_defs {

  router_id NGINX_DEVEL

}

 

vrrp_instance VI_1 {

    state BACKUP

    interface eth0

    virtual_router_id 51

    priority 99

    advert_int 1

    authentication {

        auth_type PASS

        auth_pass 1111

    }

    virtual_ipaddress {

       192.168.1.100

    }

}


验证:

先后在主、从服务器上启动keepalived: /etc/init.d/keepalived start

在主服务器上查看是否已经绑定了虚拟IPip addr

停止主服务器上的keepalived: /etc/init.d/keepalived stop 然后在从服务器上查看是否已经绑定了虚拟IP

启动主服务器上的keepalived,看看主服务器能否重新接管虚拟IP

3.3 keepalived监控NginX的状态

经过前面的配置,如果主服务器的keepalived停止服务,从服务器会自动接管VIP对外服务;一旦主服务器的keepalived恢复,会重新接管VIP。 但这并不是我们需要的,我们需要的是当NginX停止服务的时候能够自动切换。

keepalived支持配置监控脚本,我们可以通过脚本监控NginX的状态,如果状态不正常则进行一系列的操作,最终仍不能恢复NginX则杀掉keepalived,使得从服务器能够接管服务。

如何监控NginX的状态

最简单的做法是监控NginX进程,更靠谱的做法是检查NginX端口,最靠谱的做法是检查多个url能否获取到页面。

如何尝试恢复服务

如果发现NginX不正常,重启之。等待3秒再次校验,仍然失败则不再尝试。

根据上述策略很容易写出监控脚本。这里使用nmap检查nginx端口来判断nginx的状态,记得要首先安装nmap。监控脚本如下:

#!/bin/bash

# check nginx server status

NGINX=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

PORT=8080

 

nmap localhost -p $PORT | grep "$PORT/tcp open"

#echo $?

if [ $? -ne 0 ];then

    $NGINX -s stop

    $NGINX

    sleep 3

    nmap localhost -p $PORT | grep "$PORT/tcp open"

    [ $? -ne 0 ] && /etc/init.d/keepalived stop

fi


 

不要忘了设置脚本的执行权限,否则不起作用。

假设上述脚本放在/opt/chk_nginx.sh,则keepalived.conf中增加如下配置:

主keepalived

vrrp_script chk_http_port {

    script "/opt/chk_nginx.sh"

    interval 1

    weight -2

}

 

track_script {

    chk_http_port

}

 

 

例子:

! Configuration File for keepalived

 

global_defs {

   router_id NGINX_UPSTEAM

}

 

vrrp_script chk_http_port {

    script "/opt/chk_nginx.sh"

    interval 1

    weight -2

}

 

vrrp_instance VI_1 {

    state MASTER

    interface eth0

    virtual_router_id 51

    priority 100

    advert_int 1

    authentication {

        auth_type PASS

        auth_pass 1111

    }

    virtual_ipaddress {

        192.168.1.100

    }

 

    track_script {

    chk_http_port

    }

 

}


 

更进一步,为了避免启动keepalived之前没有启动nginx , 可以在/etc/init.d/keepalivedstart中首先启动nginx:

start() {

    /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

    sleep 3

    echo -n $"Starting $prog: "

    daemon keepalived ${KEEPALIVED_OPTIONS}

    RETVAL=$?

    echo

    [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/$prog

}


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