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2020
06-13

【Linux】扩展阿里云数据盘分区和文件系统

attachments-2020-06-ekEd2RM05ee3233216f30.png


扩容云盘只是扩大存储容量,不会扩容文件系统


一、准备工作


在扩展数据盘扩展分区和文件系统前,请提前完成以下工作。

  • 创建快照以备份数据,防止操作失误导致数据丢失。
  • 通过ECS控制台或者API扩容云盘容量


二、确认分区格式和文件系统

ECS实例的操作系统为CentOS 6.8 64 位,数据盘设备名为/dev/vdb。


1.运行fdisk -lu <DeviceName>确认数据盘是否分区。

本示例中,原有的数据盘空间已做分区/dev/vdb1。"System"="Linux"说明数据盘使用的是MBR分区格式,如果"System"="GPT"则说明数据盘使用的是GPT格式。

[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -lu /dev/vdb
 
Disk /dev/vdb: 1374.4 GB, 1374389534720 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2663050 cylinders, total 2684354560 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x7c4016b5
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdb1              63  2147483519  1073741728+  83  Linux


2、运行blkid <PartitionName>确认文件系统的类型。

本示例中,/dev/vdb1的文件系统类型为ext4。

[[email protected] ~]# blkid /dev/vdb1
/dev/vdb1: UUID="ee04ddf2-ad0f-40bc-9b5c-984be7e19283" TYPE="ext4"

说明 未分区并且未创建文件系统的数据盘,以及已分区但未创建文件系统的数据盘,不会返回结果。

[[email protected] ~]# blkid /dev/vdb1
[[email protected] ~]#

运行以下命令确认文件系统的状态。

  • ext*文件系统:e2fsck -n <dst_dev_part_path>
  • xfs文件系统:xfs_repair -n <dst_dev_part_path>

警告 本示例中,文件系统状态为clean。如果状态不是clean,请排查并修复。

[[email protected]~]# e2fsck -n /dev/vdb1
e2fsck 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
/dev/vdb1: clean, 115952/67108864 files, 140800686/268435432 blocks


三、扩展已有MBR分区


说明 为了防止数据丢失,不建议扩容已挂载的分区和文件系统。请先取消挂载(umount)分区,完成扩容并正常使用后,重新挂载(mount)。针对不同的Linux内核版本,推荐以下操作方式:

  • 实例内核版本 < 3.6:先取消挂载该分区,再修改分区表,最后扩容文件系统。
  • 实例内核版本 ≥ 3.6:先修改对应分区表,再通知内核更新分区表,最后扩容文件系统。

如果新增空间用于扩容已有的MBR分区,按照以下步骤在实例中完成扩容:


1.修改分区表

查看磁盘信息

[[email protected]~]# fdisk -lu /dev/vdb
 
Disk /dev/vdb: 1374.4 GB, 1374389534720 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2663050 cylinders, total 2684354560 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x7c4016b5
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdb1              63  2147483519  1073741728+  83  Linux

查看数据盘的挂载路径,根据返回的文件路径卸载分区,直至完全卸载已挂载的分区。

[[email protected] ~]# mount | grep "/dev/vdb"
/dev/vdb1 on /data type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)
[[email protected] ~]# umount /dev/vdb1
[[email protected] ~]# mount | grep "/dev/vdb"

使用fdisk工具删除旧分区。

  1. 运行fdisk -u /dev/vdb:分区数据盘。
  2. 输入p:打印分区表。
  3. 输入d:删除分区。
  4. 输入p:确认分区已删除。
  5. 输入w:保存修改并退出。
[[email protected]~]# fdisk -u /dev/vdb
 
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c').
 
Command (m for help): p
 
Disk /dev/vdb: 1374.4 GB, 1374389534720 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2663050 cylinders, total 2684354560 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x7c4016b5
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdb1              63  2147483519  1073741728+  83  Linux
 
Command (m for help): d
Selected partition 1
 
Command (m for help): p
 
Disk /dev/vdb: 1374.4 GB, 1374389534720 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2663050 cylinders, total 2684354560 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x7c4016b5
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
 
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
 
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

使用fdisk命令新建分区。

  1. 运行fdisk -u /dev/vdb:分区数据盘。
  2. 输入p:打印分区表。
  3. 输入n:新建分区。
  4. 输入p:选择分区类型为主分区。
  5. 输入<分区号>:选择分区号。本示例选取了1。警告 新分区的起始位置必须和旧分区的起始位置相同,结束位置必须大于旧分区的结束位置,否则会导致扩容失败。
  6. 输入w:保存修改并退出。

本示例中,将/dev/vdb1由1024 GiB扩容到1280 GiB。

[[email protected]~]# fdisk -u /dev/vdb
 
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c').
 
Command (m for help): p
 
Disk /dev/vdb: 1374.4 GB, 1374389534720 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2663050 cylinders, total 2684354560 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x7c4016b5
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
 
Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): w
Partition number (1-4): 1
First sector (63-2684354559, default 63):
Using default value 63
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (63-2684354559, default 2684354559):
Using default value 2684354559
 
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
 
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

运行lsblk /dev/vdb确保分区表已经增加。

运行e2fsck -n /dev/vdb1再次检查文件系统,确认扩容分区后的文件系统状态为clean。


2.通知内核更新分区表

运行partprobe <dst_dev_path>或者partx -u <dst_dev_path>,以通知内核数据盘的分区表已经修改,需要同步更新。


3.扩容文件系统

ext*文件系统(例如ext3和ext4):运行resize2fs /dev/vdb1并重新挂载分区。

[[email protected] ~]# resize2fs /dev/vdb1
resize2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
Resizing the filesystem on /dev/vdb1 to 7864320 (4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/vdb1 is now 7864320 blocks long.
[[email protected] ~]# mount /dev/vdb1 /data

xfs文件系统:先运行mount /dev/vdb1 /data/命令,再运行xfs_growfs /dev/vdb1。

[[email protected] ~]# mount /dev/vdb1 /data/
[[email protected] ~]# xfs_growfs /dev/vdb1
meta-data=/dev/vdb1              isize=512    agcount=4, agsize=1310720 blks
         =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1
         =                       crc=1        finobt=0 spinodes=0
data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=5242880, imaxpct=25
         =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1
log      =internal               bsize=4096   blocks=2560, version=2
         =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
data blocks changed from 5242880 to 7864320


四、新增并格式化MBR分区


如果新增空间用于增加新的MBR分区,按照以下步骤在实例中完成扩容:

运行fdisk -u /dev/vdb命令新建分区。

本示例中,为新增的20GiB新建分区,作为/dev/vdb2使用。

[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -u /dev/vdb
Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).
 
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write commad.
 
Command (m for help): p
 
Disk /dev/vdb: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes, 83886080 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x2b31a2a3
 
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/vdb1            2048    41943039    20970496   83  Linux
 
Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (1 primary, 0 extended, 3 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): p
Partition number (2-4, default 2): 2
First sector (41943040-83886079, default 41943040):
Using default value 41943040
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (41943040-83886079, default 83886079):
Using default value 83886079
Partition 2 of type Linux and of size 20 GiB is set
 
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
 
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

运行命令lsblk /dev/vdb查看分区。

[[email protected] ~]# lsblk /dev/vdb
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
vdb    253:16   0  40G  0 disk
├─vdb1 253:17   0  20G  0 part
└─vdb2 253:18   0  20G  0 part

格式化新的分区。

创建ext4文件系统:mkfs.ext4 /dev/vdb2

[[email protected] ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/vdb2
mke2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
1310720 inodes, 5242880 blocks
262144 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=2153775104
160 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000
 
Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
[[email protected] ~]# blkid /dev/vdb2
/dev/vdb2: UUID="e3f336dc-d534-4fdd-****-b6ff1a55bdbb" TYPE="ext4" 

创建ext3文件系统:mkfs.ext3 /dev/vdb2

[[email protected] ~]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/vdb2
mke2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
1310720 inodes, 5242880 blocks
262144 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
160 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000
 
Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
[[email protected] ~]# blkid /dev/vdb2
/dev/vdb2: UUID="dd5be97d-a630-4593-****-5056def914ea" SEC_TYPE="ext2" TYPE="ext3" 

创建xfs文件系统:mkfs.xfs -f /dev/vdb2

[[email protected] ~]# mkfs.xfs -f /dev/vdb2
meta-data=/dev/vdb2              isize=512    agcount=4, agsize=1310720 blks
         =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1
         =                       crc=1        finobt=0, sparse=0
data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=5242880, imaxpct=25
         =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1
log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=2560, version=2
         =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
[[email protected] ~]# blkid /dev/vdb2
/dev/vdb2: UUID="66251477-3ae4-4b44-****-5604420dbecb" TYPE="xfs" 

创建btrfs文件系统:mkfs.btrfs /dev/vdb2

[[email protected] ~]# mkfs.btrfs /dev/vdb2
btrfs-progs v4.9.1
See http://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org for more information.
 
Label:              (null)
UUID:               6fb5779b-57d7-4aaf-bf09-82b46f54a429
Node size:          16384
Sector size:        4096
Filesystem size:    20.00GiB
Block group profiles:
  Data:             single            8.00MiB
  Metadata:         DUP               1.00GiB
  System:           DUP               8.00MiB
SSD detected:       no
Incompat features:  extref, skinny-metadata
Number of devices:  1
Devices:
   ID        SIZE  PATH
    1    20.00GiB  /dev/vdb2
[[email protected] ~]# blkid /dev/vdb2
/dev/vdb2: UUID="6fb5779b-57d7-4aaf-****-82b46f54a429" UUID_SUB="9bdd889a-ab69-4653-****-d1b6b8723378" TYPE="btrfs" 

运行mount /dev/vdb2 /mnt挂载文件系统。

运行df -h查看目前数据盘空间和使用情况。

显示新建文件系统的信息,表示挂载成功。

[[email protected] ~]# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/vda1 40G 1.6G 36G 5% /
devtmpfs 3.9G 0 3.9G 0% /dev
tmpfs 3.9G 0 3.9G 0% /dev/shm
tmpfs 3.9G 460K 3.9G 1% /run
tmpfs 3.9G 0 3.9G 0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/vdb2 9.8G 37M 9.2G 1% /mnt
tmpfs 783M 0 783M 0% /run/user/0


五、重点来了,如果磁盘没有分区,但是有数据怎么办,怎么办?


1、查看磁盘情况

[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -lu /dev/vdb
 
Disk /dev/vdb: 1374.4 GB, 1374389534720 bytes
16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2663050 cylinders, total 2684354560 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
 
[[email protected] ~]# blkid /dev/vdb
/dev/vdb: UUID="c7a3bad3-c0f9-4cdc-9778-15abb90953ab" SEC_TYPE="ext2" TYPE="ext3"
[[email protected] ~]# lsblk /dev/vdb
NAME MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
vdb  252:16   0  1.3T  0 disk


2、直接扩容

[[email protected] ~]# e2fsck -f /dev/vdb
e2fsck 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
/dev/vdb: 115952/67108864 files (32.8% non-contiguous), 140800686/268435432 blocks
[[email protected] ~]#
[[email protected] ~]# resize2fs /dev/vdb
resize2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Resizing the filesystem on /dev/vdb1 to 335544312 (4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/vdb is now 335544312 blocks long.



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